Jun 02, 2023  
College Catalog 2021-2022 
    
College Catalog 2021-2022 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Courses


 

Music

  
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    MUSI 211 - World Music Theory and Analysis


    This course is designed primarily for music majors, music minors, and students with previous music background. We study the organization of musical sounds in selected traditions across the world through the development of analytical skills. Music theory is approached here “not as a codification of Western harmonic practice, but as symbolic systems for conveying musical knowledge” (Roeder 2011). Course materials also examine the discourse of “world music” against the changing ideas of musical otherness. The ability to read staff notation is preferred. Every year. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 214 - Advanced Musicianship


    In this course, students will study chromatic harmony based in European classical and romantic music and some popular musical genres and learn about some common large-scale form designs, such as binary, ternary, song form, and forms associated with pop & rock music. Students will apply knowledge in written and online exercises, analysis activities, and music composition. In addition, students will develop skills in converting sound into notation and notation into sound through ear training activities, including aural exercises, dictation, and sight singing. Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113   Spring semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 220 - Language and Music

    Cross-Listed as LING 220  
    Language and music are two uniquely human enterprises with a number of parallels: both rely on sound and convention, display hierarchical organization and culturally-specific practices, and can convey both communicative and social meaning. This course examines the intersection of language and music from a linguistic perspective. We will engage with questions such as: How can syntax, phonology, and morphology change between spoken and sung language? How do speakers of tone languages understand lyrics in sung melodies? Is hip hop different in different languages? What does it mean to study melody and rhythm in speech? Can music help people learn languages? How do drum- and whistle-languages work? How does music contribute to language revitalization? No musical ability is required. Every year. ( )

  
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    MUSI 225 - Musical Fictions

    Cross-Listed as ENGL 225  
    From E. M. Forster’s Lucy Honeychurch, who “entered into a more solid world when she opened the piano,” to James Baldwin’s Sonny, who “moved in an atmosphere which wasn’t like theirs at all,” fictional musicians encounter trouble when negotiating the conflicting realms of art and society. Experts in one kind of expression, they fail in others. What draws these characters to music? What does it offer them? What is its value to us? In the musical novel and short story, we encounter music as an agent of violence, of consolation, of transcendence and redemption as well as damnation. We witness empathy through music, but we also learn that shared feeling can be both beautiful and dangerous, that music unites and divides. This course combines the close reading of literary texts (as well as works of literary theory and musicology) with the examination of the musical contexts that inform and inspire them. We will explore, for example, the relationship between Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel The Unconsoled and Richard Wagner’s music drama Parsifal. We will talk about syncopation in “jazz” by Charles Mingus and Toni Morrison. We will watch Marguerite Duras and Katherine Mansfield turn innocuous music lessons into spaces of wretchedness. We will try to understand what David Mitchell’s young composer Robert Frobisher means when he says, “One writes music because winter is eternal and because, if one didn’t, the wolves and blizzards would be at one’s throat all the sooner.” Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 233 - Musical Architectures


    Analysis of musical structures:  the “architectural” assemblage of music into formal, harmonic, and temporal units; how these units evolved into standard models; and the endless variation within and among these models.  Repertoire will be wide-ranging and include classical, jazz, and popular music.  Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113   Fall semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 254 - Cover Songs


    In this course, we explore recorded music since the 1950s, through the lens of musical borrowing, specifically cover song recordings. To this end, students will (1) examine cover versions of previously recorded songs and how the intersection of gender, sexuality, race, class, and genre through changing socio-historical and cultural contexts can shape different meanings listeners ascribe to the songs, (2) explore how artists covering other people’s songs can emulate, pay homage to, comment upon, subvert meanings of, and create parodies of previously recorded works, (3) investigate and interrogate meanings around the concept of authenticity and its role in music criticism, and (4) apply basic musical analysis and transcription skills to aid the understanding of musical processes at play in various cover song recordings. Every other year. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 264 - History of Jazz


    This course surveys the rich history and development of jazz music and its associated culture. A thorough exploration of jazz’s principal artists and style periods will be undertaken, along with related studies of race and conflict, gender, geography, and African-American cultural values. A particular emphasis is placed on listening; students will become familiar by ear with a wide variety of jazz repertoire, artists, and styles. Offered yearly. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 294 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 342 - Medieval to Mozart


    This course traces the development of Western art music from its beginnings in the monophonic chant of early Christianity, through the development of polyphonic genres in the Renaissance (mass, motet, madrigal), to the emergence of opera in Italy around 1600 and the stylistic revolution that we now call the Baroque (including musical life in the extravagant court of Louis XIV in France and Johann Sebastian Bach’s masterful synthesis of Baroque styles), to the sophisticated, multi-movement sonata structures of late 18th century Viennese classicism. Its central concerns are: (1) to understand the place of music in social and cultural life, (2) to gain an appreciation of the musical style and rhetoric that characterizes each of the periods we study, and (3) to develop students’ abilities in communicating, in writing and the spoken word, what they have learned about this music and the culture in which it was produced. Course activities will take several forms, including lectures, musical analyses, and performances. Lectures will introduce key terms and concepts and will address broader concerns of cultural life (including composer biographies). In-class analysis and performance will lead to a more detailed understanding of key works. Examinations will test students’ retention of course listening and lecture/discussion/reading material. Essays will give students the opportunity to delve deeper into critical and musical analysis, and to sharpen their prose, specifically with respect to writing about music. The course assumes no historical knowledge of the periods in question. However, basic skills in the analysis of music are necessary.   Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113  or permission of instructor. Offered every fall semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 343 - Western Music of the 19th Century


    This course provides a survey of Western art music from the early works of Ludwig van Beethoven, composed in the mid-1790s, to the symphonic works of the generation of modernist composers born around 1860 (Gustav Mahler, Jean Sibelius, Giacomo Puccini, Richard Strauss). One principal aim of the course is to expose students to a large quantity of multi-national Western music in a variety of genres and styles, thus leading students to a deeper understanding of the development of musical style in the nineteenth century. In addition to the musical works themselves, and no less importantly, the course stresses the contexts surrounding the musical texts. Lectures address the political, cultural, and intellectual history that directed the path of musical style in this period. Students are therefore expected to become familiar not only with specific works and the stylistic footprints of many composers, but also with the significant cultural-historical events and trends that informed composition during this period–the pan-European revolutions of 1848, the aesthetic ideology of autonomous music, the public music culture of the European bourgeoisie, the relationship between musical reception and various strains of European nationalism, and so on. Classroom activities include lectures, directed listening of pieces on the listening list (and sometimes, for comparison, other works), some formal and stylistic analysis, and discussion. Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113  or permission of instructor. Offered every spring semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 344 - Musical Modernism


    The contemporary period (20th-21st centuries) in music history is a complex epoch characterized by progressive growth across multiple domains:  harmony, rhythm, texture, style.  This course investigates the ideologies behind the many new ways of thinking about and creating modern music, and surveys the major music-makers of the period (Debussy to Miles Davis and beyond) and their works. Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113   Spring semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 354 - Gender and Music

    Cross-Listed as WGSS 354  
    In this course, students will explore how gender is constructed in a variety of American and European musical styles and contexts, with an emphasis on popular genres. Learning objectives include for students to: (1) better understand the intersectional ways in which gender relates to and is informed by other aspects of identity formation, including class, race, and sexuality, (2) investigate issues that have affected women’s participation in musical life, such as musical canons, gendered musical discourse, and gender stereotypes, (3) explore contributions of trans and non-binary musicians, as well as issues that affect their musical lives, (4) interrogate constructions of gender, masculinity, and femininity as they relate to music, and (5) to develop reading comprehension, critical thinking skills, and argumentative writing skills. Once a year. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 361 - Composition


    An introductory course in techniques of music composition.  Students will compose a portfolio of several short works for a variety of instruments and voices.  Topics of study include instrumentation, thematic expansion and development, enlargement of harmonic vocabulary, analysis, study of contemporary music repertoire, frequent listening, and score study.  A class concert will be organized for works to receive their world premiere by visiting guest artists. Prerequisite(s): MUSI 113  or permission of the instructor. Fall semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 370 - Conducting


    Emphasizes basic techniques, including beat patterns, baton techniques, score preparation and rehearsal techniques. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 394 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 405 - Ethnomusicology

    Cross-Listed as ANTH 405  
    This course introduces students to the field of ethnomusicology through its philosophical foundation, theoretical models, and disciplinary practices. Topics include comparative approach, structuralist/functionalist models, cultural relativism, organology, bi-musicality, reflexivity, post/modernism, among other recent research directions. Assignments are designed to develop skills in musical fieldwork, transcription and analysis, as well as preparing and presenting scholarly findings in ethnographic disciplines. This course is aimed primarily for students of music and/or anthropology. Prerequisite(s): Basic knowledge or experience in world music and performance recommended. Offered occasionally. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 425 - Seminar in Composers/Genres


    Intended for upper-level majors and minors in Music, this course provides the opportunity for in-depth study of the works of a single composer, or of several works within a given genre or historical era. Topics will change regularly; recent offerings have included Beethoven, Verdi, and Shostakovich. In addition to close analysis of significant works, course readings from the musicological and culture-critical literature will also introduce students to both classic and current scholarship in these topics. Skills in musical analysis are essential for this course. This course may be taken twice and counted both times toward the Music major or minor if the topic is different. Prerequisite(s):  MUSI 113  or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 488 - Senior Project


    Intensive guided preparation for the presentation of a project involving recital performance, composition and/or music research. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. (2 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 494 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 601 - Tutorial


    Tutorials are available for advanced study. Typical areas include counterpoint, composition, advanced choral or instrumental conducting, orchestration, and research. See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 602 - Tutorial


    Tutorials are available for advanced study. Typical areas include counterpoint, composition, advanced choral or instrumental conducting, orchestration, and research. See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 603 - Tutorial


    Tutorials are available for advanced study. Typical areas include counterpoint, composition, advanced choral or instrumental conducting, orchestration, and research. See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 604 - Tutorial


    Tutorials are available for advanced study. Typical areas include counterpoint, composition, advanced choral or instrumental conducting, orchestration, and research. See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 611 - Independent Project


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 612 - Independent Project


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 613 - Independent Project


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 614 - Independent Project


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 621 - Internship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 622 - Internship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 623 - Internship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 624 - Internship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 631 - Preceptorship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 632 - Preceptorship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 633 - Preceptorship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    MUSI 634 - Preceptorship


    See the Independent Study section of this catalog. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (4 Credits)


Neuroscience

  
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    NSCI 488 - Neuroscience Capstone


    Taken during the senior year, this 2-credit course provides a forum for students to prepare for post-graduation opportunities and create the poster that each will present at the Neuroscience Poster Session held every spring. Students’ posters will have a central focus on neuroscience and be based on the research/internship experience, the multi-draft paper, or related coursework to be approved by the capstone course instructor. At least one of these components must be completed before the capstone course is taken. Prerequisite(s): Declared Neuroscience major. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 611 - Independent Project


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and chair. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 612 - Independent Project


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and chair. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 613 - Independent Project


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and chair. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 614 - Independent Project


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and chair. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 621 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor; work with Internship Office. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 622 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor; work with Internship Office. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 623 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor; work with Internship Office. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    NSCI 624 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor; work with Internship Office. Every semester. (4 Credits)


Neuroscience Studies

  
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    NEUR 300 - Directed Research


    Students are involved and guided in conducting research within specific content areas approved by the supervising faculty. Research may be conducted individually or in small groups depending on the content area. Research groups meet regularly for presentation of background material, discussions of common readings, and reports on project status. Directed research is typically taken in the junior year and is open only to declared majors. Students will be assigned to sections by the supervising faculty. Prerequisite(s):  NEUR 180  or   and permission of instructor. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 601 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (1 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 602 - Tutorial


    Research methodology tutorial: Tutorial in research methodology; a minimum number of hours will be required in laboratory each week. May be repeated for credit.  Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair required. (2 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 603 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (3 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 604 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 611 - Independent Project


    This course provides an opportunity to pursue independent research or study on a topic in the field of neuroscience. This may be done with a faculty member at Macalester or at another college or university under direct supervision. Students must have the appropriate academic and coursework background before an independent study will be approved. Every semester. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (1 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 612 - Independent Project


    This course provides an opportunity to pursue independent research or study on a topic in the field of neuroscience. This may be done with a faculty member at Macalester or at another college or university under direct supervision. Students must have the appropriate academic and coursework background before an independent study will be approved. Every semester. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (2 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 613 - Independent Project


    This course provides an opportunity to pursue independent research or study on a topic in the field of neuroscience. This may be done with a faculty member at Macalester or at another college or university under direct supervision. Students must have the appropriate academic and coursework background before an independent study will be approved. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (3 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 614 - Independent Project


    This course provides an opportunity to pursue independent research or study on a topic in the field of neuroscience. This may be done with a faculty member at Macalester or at another college or university under direct supervision. Students must have the appropriate academic and coursework background before an independent study will be approved. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 621 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. (1 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 622 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. (2 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 623 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. (3 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 624 - Internship


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Internship Office. (4 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 632 - Preceptorship


    This preceptorship offers an opportunity for advanced students to become more involved in neuroscience courses by assisting faculty with teaching, particularly in laboratory settings. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    NEUR 634 - Preceptorship


    This preceptorship offers an opportunity for advanced students to become more involved in neuroscience courses by assisting faculty with teaching, particularly in laboratory settings. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor. Work with Academic Programs. Every semester. (4 Credits)


Philosophy

  
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    PHIL 100 - Introduction to Philosophy


    An introduction to philosophy through topics found in classical and contemporary philosophical writings, such as the nature of truth and knowledge, mind and body, freedom and determinism, right and wrong, and the existence of God. Course content varies from instructor to instructor. Specific course descriptions will be available in the department prior to registration. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 110 - Critical Thinking


    This course introduces and explores the main principles and methods of Critical Thinking: distinguishing between good and bad arguments; identifying common fallacies; developing strong and persuasive arguments; the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning; constructing logical proofs; the nature of scientific, moral, and legal reasoning; evaluating polls and statistical hypotheses; understanding probability; deciding how to act under uncertainty. Students will apply these principles and methods to numerous academic and ‘everyday’ contexts, including journals, the print press, blogs, political rhetoric, advertising and documentaries. We will regularly reflect upon more broadly philosophical matters related to Critical Thinking - such as the nature of truth and objectivity and the distinction between science and pseudo-science - and examine a number of intriguing philosophical paradoxes. Students will improve their skills in writing clear and compelling argumentative papers and critically analyzing the writings of others. Course work includes reading, class discussion, regular homework assignments, quizzes, and short argumentative essays. Every year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 111 - Introduction to Symbolic Logic


    An introduction to formal methods for evaluating deductive arguments. Topics include formal fallacies, decision procedures, translation of arguments to argument forms, and natural deduction proofs in propositional and predicate logic. Every year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 121 - Ethics


    An introductory philosophy course that concentrates on concepts and issues, such as the nature of value, duty, right and wrong, the good life, human rights, social justice, and applications to selected problems of personal and social behavior. Topics may include liberty and its limitations, civil disobedience, abortion, affirmative action, capital punishment, terrorism and the morality of war, animal rights and environmental ethics. Every semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 194 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 200 - Ancient and Medieval Philosophies

    Cross-Listed as CLAS 200 
    A study of major philosophers of ancient Greece, Rome and the medieval period, including the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, Augustine, Anselm, and Aquinas. Every year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 201 - Modern Philosophy


    A study of the 17th and 18th century philosophers, including the Empiricists, Rationalists, and Kant. The course considers issues regarding skepticism, justification, freedom of the will, personal identity, perception and the existence of God. Every year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 202 - American Philosophy


    Is there a distinct American worldview, or merely a confluence of intellectual traditions originating beyond and before the USA? This course explores the diverse intellectual strains that have contributed to the development of American philosophy in the last three centuries, including influences that have been somewhat neglected: the American Indian thought of Arthur Parker and Zit Kala Za (Gertie Bonnin); the puritan theology of Jonathan Edwards; the political theory of Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson; the African American philosophy of W.E.B. DuBois and Alain Locke; the transcendentalism of R. W. Emerson and H.D. Thoreau; the ‘classical’ pragmatism of C.S. Peirce and William James; the ‘radical’ pragmatism of John Dewey and Jane Adams. Special attention will be given to American conceptions of justice, freedom, democracy, religiosity, nature, pragmatism, progress and self-reliance. Every other year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 210 - Existentialist Metaphysics


    “All living is one’s own living, feeling oneself live, knowing oneself to be existing, where knowing does not imply intellectual knowledge or any special wisdom but is that surprising presence which one’s life has for every one of us” (Jose Ortega y Gasset). For those thinkers whose work is associated with the philosophical tradition of existentialism, the understanding of human existence represents a singular gateway to the understanding of being, the general object of the study of metaphysics. But just what does it mean to exist? In this course, we will reflectively consider responses to this and other questions that play a key role within existentialist metaphysics. Typically, readings will be drawn from works by philosophers such as Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Jose Ortega y Gassett. Prerequisite(s): Familiarity with the history of European philosophy recommended. Offered alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 211 - Asian Philosophies

    Cross-Listed as ASIA 211  


    Did Confucius really say all those things? What does it mean to call something “zen”? The popularity of mindfulness and meditation made “Eastern Philosophy” fashionable, but what exactly does that entail? This class will be an introduction to classical Chinese philosophy, focusing on Confucianism and its rivals (Daoism, Mohism, Buddhism). Many schools of thought in East Asia offered competing views on how to live a good life; we will explore these views and chart how they responded to each other. We’ll also see how Chinese thoughts were received and developed by Korean and Japanese philosophers and assess ongoing influences of these philosophies in East Asia and beyond. Texts with English translations.

      Spring semester. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 212 - Philosophy of Religion

    Cross-Listed as  
    Philosophical analysis of problems in religion and theology such as arguments for the existence of God and the nature of religious knowledge. The Philosophy of Religion seeks an understanding of religion by raising philosophical questions about its underlying assumptions and implications. When we believe something it is because we think it is true and because we think we have good evidence to support our belief. In the case of religious beliefs, however, we are immediately faced with questions concerning the nature of such beliefs. What claims do they make? What would count as good evidence for a religious belief? What is the nature of religious truth? In this course we will examine the nature of religious beliefs and the ways in which philosophers in different traditions have justified or argued against such beliefs. Perhaps in response to the increasing challenge to religion from the natural sciences, twentieth century philosophers have questioned the traditional philosophical approach to religion. Some philosophers, Wittgenstein for example, question traditional interpretations of religious language and re-examine the relationship between faith and reason. Can religious life be practiced without a theology or with skepticism or agnosticism regarding theological questions? Other topics covered in the course include the attempt to introduce intelligent design into public schools as part of the science curriculum; religious pluralism; the belief in life after death; and feminist critiques of religious language. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 213 - Philosophy of Mind


    Materialism, rather than solving the problem of mind, consciousness and intentionality, has spawned numerous philosophical perplexities. This course will examine a variety of philosophical problems associated with contemporary models of the mind (mind/body dualism; mind/brain identity theories; behaviorism; functionalism and artificial intelligence; eliminative naturalism and folk psychology; biological naturalism). The course will also look at contemporary philosophical accounts of personhood and personal identity, particularly narrative accounts of the self. Readings will typically include David Chalmers, Daniel Dennett, Owen Flanagan, Derek Parfit, Marya Schechtman, John Searle, Galen Strawson, and Kathleen Wilkes. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 215 - Philosophy of Sport


    Sports and games deserve close philosophical examination since they have always played an important part in human life. We first ask what exactly sports, games and athletics are, and how they are distinct from other modes of life. Next, we consider the main arguments for and against sports. For example, does sport promote virtue and ‘fair-play’ or, on the contrary, aggression and egoism? It is often said that sport is an essential part of the ‘well-rounded’ life and a liberal arts education. But why are well-rounded lives, and liberal arts educations, good? We will explore numerous ethical and conceptual issues that arise within sports, such as cheating and ‘sportsmanship’, violence and injury, doping and enhancement, and gender and racial equity. And we will consider whether sports can help us gain insight into more general philosophical concepts, such as virtue, justice, health, embodiment, friendship, consciousness, absurdity, death, and beauty. Our ultimate concern will be: what is the place of sport and games in a good and meaningful human life? Is it possible that life itself is a game? Along with numerous philosophical readings, contemporary and historical, we will also discuss philosophical treatments of sports in literature and film. Every other year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 216 - Reading Marx

    Cross-Listed as GERM 316  
    For Marx, “private capital” is an oxymoron - a contradiction in terms, since by its very nature capital is social. And “philosophy” is really not a thing, at least not the way it’s always been defined, since the world of ideas has no existence independent of the material conditions of human existence. In this course, we will try to recover the revolutionary force of these arguments with a focus on what they show us about the illusory or fantastic character of modern life. From the early critique of alienation to the late analysis of surplus value, Marx showed over and again how the so-called rational world is not as rational as it seems: specters, fetishes, deceptive appearances, “false consciousness” are just some of the features of life under capital that Marx exposes and that continue to haunt our world (just think of how we appeal to the “magic of the market,” its “invisible hand” or to “creative destruction”). We will read selections from Marx’s early writings on religion and alienation through the theory of ideology, of commodity fetishism, and of primitive accumulation to his late programmatic texts in tandem with texts by 20th-century thinkers who critiqued and further developed Marx’s thought (Lukacs, Gramsci, Lefort, Derrida). Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 220 - Bioethics


    Bioethics deals with a variety of ethical issues arising in the context of medical care and biomedical research. These issues include informed consent, euthanasia, reproductive rights, confidentiality, and the distribution of health care resources. The course uses ethical theory to shed light on issues in medicine, and issues in medicine to illuminate ethical theory. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 221 - Environmental Ethics

    Cross-Listed as ENVI 221  
    Emerging in the 1970s, the field of environmental ethics began by sparking a rich line of philosophical inquiry largely focused on the moral status of the natural world and the non-human entities within it. What reasons do we have to give moral consideration to the environment? And what do we mean when we say we have a moral duty toward the environment? Do we have moral duties to individuals within a species, or to species themselves, or to ecosystems, or to…? This course will invite you to reflect on key philosophical works that engage these and related questions. You will also have the opportunity to think about significant emerging topics in environmental ethics. Depending on the semester, these may include the debate over the ethics of wilderness preservation; the challenges of expanding environmental ethics to address issues of global climate change and resource sustainability; environmental rights; and environmental justice. Offered occasionally. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 222 - Philosophy of Human Rights


    Although human rights play an obviously important international role, philosophers have found human rights puzzling and difficult to justify. What does it mean to say a person has a moral right or a human right? What is the relationship between human rights stated in international covenants and human rights that are said to be morally binding? Aside from questions about the nature of human rights, the course will consider possible justifications for human rights, both legal and moral, as well as arguments that ther are no human rights. The course will take up the issue of whether it is possible to adopt human rights while respecting the diversity of human cultures, religions, and moral views. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 223 - Health and Human Rights


    Human rights and healthcare are intimately connected. Human rights are used both to protect human subjects in biomedical research and to support claims for adequate healthcare. The use of human rights to protect human research subjects raises issues of informed consent, privacy, and individual autonomy. The use of human rights to secure healthcare resources raises issues about what level of healthcare ought to be supported and what constitutes a just distribution of healthcare resources. The course also explores recent work on the way in which human rights and public health combine in the quest to secure overall wellbeing. In general the course views public health through the framework of human rights. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 224 - Philosophy of Law


    An analysis of fundamental legal concepts and the problems of justifying various legal practices. Topics may include the relationship between law and morality, the distinction between the criminal and civil law, theories of constitutional and statutory interpretation, and the appropriate role of the judiciary. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 225 - Digital Ethics

    Cross-Listed as COMP 154  
    This course looks at ethical questions connected with the internet as we know it today: an online environment where content is generated and shared through user activities such as blogging, media sharing, social networking, tagging, tweeting, virtual world gaming, wiki developing, and the like. We will start by considering debates over freedom of speech, privacy, surveillance, and intellectual property: issues that pre-exist the development of the Internet, but which because of it have taken on new dimensions. From here we will go on to take up some ethical questions arising from four different domains of activity on the social web: gaming, social networking, blog/wiki developing, and “hacktivism.” In the third part of the course, we will consider broad questions connected to the integration of the Internet with devices other than the personal computer and mobile phone and which open the prospect of a world of integrated networked systems. What are some of the impacts of such integration on our everyday ethical relations with others and on the overall quality of our lives? How does being networked affect the meaning of being human? Offered alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 226 - Animal Ethics


    This course focuses on fundamental questions connected to our ethical responsibilities to nonhuman animals, as well as the philosophical debates over the principles and values involved in responding to them. What does it mean to treat animals well? Are our responsibilities toward animals grounded in recognizing that they have rights, and if so, what kinds of rights? Or, are they rooted in the welfare interests of animals, and if so, what do we need to do to meet these interests? Attention will be given to a broad scope of human-animal relations, from human-pet relations of affection and companionship to human-farm animal relations of consumption and being consumed. Ethical issues associated with the use of animals in research labs, animals in zoos, and urban wildlife will also be considered. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 294 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 300 - 20th Century Continental Philosophy


    Close reading, reflection, and analysis of a work or works associated with a major figure or movement within the tradition of twentieth-century Continental philosophy. Prerequisite(s): one course in the history of philosophy or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 310 - Philosophy of Science


    Are quarks “real”? Does science lead to objective knowledge? Is there really a scientific method? How do we distinguish between creation “science” from evolution; or astrology from astronomy? These questions are asked in philosophy of science, which studies the fundamental processes, principles, and presuppositions of the natural sciences. The social and historical contexts of the sciences are also considered. Topics include: science vs. pseudoscience, scientific explanation, scientific revolutions, the philosophy of space and time, the theory of evolution, theories of confirmation, objectivity in science, and realism vs. relativism. Prerequisite(s): PHIL 111 , PHIL 100 , or permission of the instructor. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 311 - Philosophy of Language

    Cross-Listed as  
    What is language and what is it for? What makes a series of sounds into a meaningful sentence? What makes a sentence true? Why is language always changing? This course will introduce students to ways in which twentieth century philosophers have attempted to provide answers to such questions. Since the philosophy of language has been so crucial to contemporary philosophy, this course also serves as an introduction to philosophical thought from the beginning of twentieth century to the present. Topics will range from more technical problems (theories of meaning, reference and truth; synonymy and analyticity; universals and natural kinds; private languages) to broader issues examining the relationship between language and culture (language games; radical interpretation; social change). Readings typically include writings by Ludwig Wittgenstein, W.V. Quine, John Searle, Donald Davidson, Richard Rorty, Michel Foucault, and bell hooks. Prerequisite(s): PHIL 201 , or permission of instructor. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 312 - Philosophy of Mathematics

    Cross-Listed as  
    Why does 2 + 2 equal four? Can a diagram prove a mathematical truth? Is mathematics a social construction or do mathematical facts exist independently of our knowing them? Philosophy of mathematics considers these sorts of questions in an effort to understand the logical and philosophical foundations of mathematics. Topics include mathematical truth, mathematical reality, and mathematical justifications (knowledge). Typically we focus on the history of mathematics of the past 200 years, highlighting the way philosophical debates arise in mathematics itself and shape its future. Prerequisite(s): PHIL 111 , MATH 279 , or permission of the instructor. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 313 - Advanced Symbolic Logic

    Cross-Listed as   
    A second course in symbolic logic which extends the methods of logic. A main purpose of this course is to study logic itself-to prove things about the system of logic learned in the introductory course. This course is thus largely logic about logic. Topics include second order logic and basic set theory; soundness, consistency and completeness of first order logic; incompleteness of arithmetic; Turing computability; modal logic; and intuitionistic logic. Prerequisite(s): PHIL 111  or MATH 279  or permission of instructor. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 314 - Contemporary Metaphysics


    Metaphysics - the investigation of the fundamental categories of being - is as old as philosophy itself. This class is devoted to the most important and intriguing metaphysical theories and problems of contemporary philosophy. Specific topics will vary from year to year depending on student and faculty interest but will likely include: time and space, freedom and determinism, infinity, identity, causality, death, the origin and demise of the universe, abstract and fictional objects, necessity and possibility, human nature and transhumanism, and the categories of race and gender. We will also be concerned with the relationship between metaphysics and other domains within and beyond philosophy, such as literature and natural science. Classes will be seminar-style, focused on discussion of readings and student work. Prerequisite(s): A 100- or 200- level Philosophy course. Every other year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 315 - Contemporary Epistemology


    Epistemology is the philosophical study of knowledge, belief, and rationality. The historical focus of epistemology has been questions about human knowledge.  What is knowledge?  How do we acquire knowledge?  Do we have any knowledge at all, or do nightmarish “skeptical” possibilities (like Descartes’ demon and /The Matrix/) show that we know little or nothing? Epistemologists are also interested in broader questions about the nature of belief and mental representation in general.  What is it to believe something?  What does it take for my beliefs to be rational, or reasonable?  Can I choose what to believe, or is belief somehow involuntary?  How does our commonsense notion of belief relate to the idea of subjective probability or graded belief common in cognitive science and the decision sciences? A final set of important questions apply epistemological thinking to specific topics. Can religious beliefs ever be rational?  Do phenomena like implicit bias and stereotype threat undermine rational belief?  How should we understand epistemological standards in the law, such as the idea of proving something “beyond a reasonable doubt”?  Can reasonable people disagree about difficult moral, political, and religious questions, or must we ultimately say that one side of such disputes irrational? In this course we consider how contemporary philosophers have tried to answer these questions, and others. Prerequisite(s): Any 100- or 200- level Philosophy course. Alternate years. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 321 - Contemporary Social and Political Philosophy

    Cross-Listed as POLI 268  
    This course will focus on some central topics in contemporary Anglo-American (or “analytic”) social and political philosophy. Likely topics would include an examination of John Rawls’s theory of justice and the work of critics of that theory, the value of equality, and issues about global justice. Prerequisite(s): A 100- or 200- level Philosophy course. Every other year. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 394 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 488 - Seminar: Topics


    A study of some movement, philosopher or problem in the tradition of Western philosophy. Primarily for juniors or seniors majoring, or doing significant work, in philosophy. Prerequisite(s): permission of instructor. Offered on an occasional basis. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 489 - Senior Seminar


    A capstone experience in philosophy for senior majors. Each participant in the seminar will be expected to write an essay reflective of scholarly standards within the discipline on a question of their own choosing, within a collaborative and supportive environment. Participants in the seminar will help one another develop their capstone papers and prepare to present them publicly at the end of the semester. Readings may be assigned as appropriate with regard to student-identified topics. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy major and senior status, or permission of instructor. Every fall. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 494 - Topics Course


    Varies by semester. Consult the department or class schedule for current listing. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 601 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (1 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 602 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (2 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 603 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (3 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 604 - Tutorial


    Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. (4 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 611 - Independent Project


    The number of independent studies to be applied toward the major or core will be determined in consultation with the department. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (1 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 612 - Independent Project


    The number of independent studies to be applied toward the major or core will be determined in consultation with the department. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (2 Credits)

  
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    PHIL 613 - Independent Project


    The number of independent studies to be applied toward the major or core will be determined in consultation with the department. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department chair. Every semester. (3 Credits)

 

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